US National Library of Medicine

National Institutes of Health

Internet and Gaming Addiction: A Systematic Literature Review of Neuroimaging Studies

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4061797/

 

 

Brain imaging studies reveal that game addictions commandeer the cingulate gyrus (a key brain area involved in motivation) and the prefrontal cortex (the brain’s judgment center). The result is that kids can become fixated on digital devices, cease to care about what once mattered to them most, and yet have no insight regarding their problems.

Taken from the report: “From a biochemical point of view, the results of PET studies provide evidence for striatal dopamine release during gaming [50]. Frequent gaming and Internet use were shown to decrease dopamine levels (due to decreased dopamine transporter availability) and lead to neurobiological dysfunctions in the dopaminergic system in Internet addicts [49,51]. The decreased availability was linked with the severity of Internet addiction [49]. Reduced dopamine levels have been reported in addictions time and again [26,109,110]. Furthermore, structural abnormalities of the corpus striatum have been reported [51]. Damages to the corpus striatum have been associated with heroin addiction [111].

“The studies included in this literature review appear to provide compelling evidence for the similarities between different types of addictions, notably substance-related addictions and Internet addiction, on a variety of levels. On the molecular level, it has been shown that Internet addiction is characterized by an overall reward deficiency that is characterized by decreased dopaminergic activity. The direction of this relationship is yet to be explored. Most studies could not exclude that an addiction develops as a consequence of a deficient reward system rather than vice versa. The possibility that deficits in the reward system predispose certain individuals to develop a drug or a behavioral addiction such as Internet addiction may put an individual at greater risk for psychopathology. In Internet addicts, negative affectivity can be considered the baseline state, where the addict is preoccupied with using the Internet and gaming to modify his mood. This is brought about by the activation of the antireward system. Due to the excessive use of the Internet and online gaming, opponent processes appear to be set in motion that quickly habituate the addict to the engagement with the Internet, leading to tolerance, and, if use is discontinued, withdrawal [27]. Accordingly, decreased neuronal dopamine as evinced in Internet addiction may be linked to commonly reported comorbidities with affective disorders, such as depression [112], bipolar disorder [113], and borderline personality disorder [10].

“On the level of neural circuitry, neuroadaptation occurs as a consequence of increased brain activity in brain areas associated with addiction and structural changes as a consequence of Internet and gaming addiction. The cited studies provide a clear picture of Internet and gaming addiction pathogenesis and stress how maladaptive behavioral patterns indicative of addiction are maintained. The brain adapts to frequent use of drugs or engagement in addictive behaviors so that it becomes desensitized to natural reinforcers. Importantly, functioning and structure of the OFC and cingulate gyrus are altered, leading to increased drug or behavior salience and loss of control over behaviors. Learning mechanisms and increased motivation for consumption/engagement result in compulsive behaviors [114].

“On a behavioral level, Internet and gaming addicts appear to be constricted with regards to their impulse control, behavioral inhibition, executive functioning control, attentional capabilities, and overall cognitive functioning. In turn, certain skills are developed and improved as a consequence of frequent engagement with the technology, such as the integration of perceptual information into the brain via the senses, and hand-eye coordination. It appears that the excessive engagement with the technology results in a number of advantages for players and Internet users, however to the detriment of fundamental cognitive functioning.

“Overall, the studies indicate that Internet and gaming addiction is associated with both changes in function as well as structure of the brain. Therefore, not only does this behavioral addiction increase the activity in brain regions commonly associated with substance-related addictions, but it appears to lead to neuroadaptation in such a way that the brain itself actually changes as a consequence of excessive engagement with the Internet and gaming.”